When looking at a real research paper formatted in the Turabian style, you will find evidence for the guidelines, which are provided in A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, like the following:
- On the first page you will find a title centered a third of the way down the page, the name of the author and the class information following a few lines later. We suggest discussing with your professor, whether it is needed to include the title on the first page of the research paper, as long as this issue is usually up to instructors. When applying subtitles, you should end the title with a colon and allocate the subtitle on the line below your paper's title. In fact, various methods for theses and dissertations exist.
- You will see that margins are set no less than 1 pt and no more than 1.5 pt.
- The typeface is always something readable, preferably Times New Roman. You'd better use twelve-point font, although the sample may have only ten-point type.
- All the text is double-spaced, with the exception with the following: block quotations, table titles and figure captions are single-spaced. Also, notes and bibliography are single-spaced internally, but there is an extra line space between note and bibliographic entries.
- There are arabic page numbers in the header of the first page of the text. In humanities and soft sciences they use notes for citing sources and providing relevant documentary. The numbers of notes have to be put at the end of the clause or sentence, in which they are used. Also they have to be allocated after the punctuation with the exception of the dash. In addition, note numbers always start with «1» and move forward sequentially within the paper or a chapter in it.
- As you can see in the sample, the Turabian style recommends using a minimalist approach to capitalization. This means that when terms are used to present a period, they are usually lowercased.
- Did you pay attention to the three spaced periods? They serve to define the omission of words from a quoted passage. On the same line, there has to be an additional punctuation in the form of sentence-ending period or a comma. You should be very careful when using three spaced periods because they show the meaning of the original information source.
- Also, you can see that the quotations inside another quotations are enclosed in single quotation marks.
- As for the square brackets, they are used to clarify certain words, phrases or even punctuation in regard to direct quotations, if needed. In other words, they serve to explain potential reader what means that or another word, etc.
- Do you see italic type in the Turabian paper? You should know that this style can only be used in case of absolute necessity in order to make an emphasis. Note, that this is the only way you can make an emphasis, as long as the usage of capital letters with the same purpose is inappropriate. However, you can use italics when indicating a foreign word, which the audience may not be aware of. In case this word is mentioned more than once, it should be written with italic style only for the first time. In addition, when using italic type, you should let the audience know that italics is not a part of the original quotation. In order to do this, you may use appropriate phrases informing the reader.
Now you have a guide for citations, references and footnotes.
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